T-SQL Fundamentals 2012
Table of Contents
Chapter 02: Single-Table Queries
Chapter 03: Joins
Chapter 04: Subqueries
Chapter 05: Table Expressions
Chapter 06: Set Operations
Chapter 07: Beyond the Fundamentals of Querying
Chapter 08: Data Modification
Chapter 09: Transactions and Concurrency
Chapter 10: Programmable Objects
Appendix A: Getting Started
Although this book is intended for beginners, it is not merely a set of procedures for readers to follow. It goes beyond the syntactical elements of T-SQL and explains the logic behind the language and its elements.
Occasionally, the book covers subjects that may be considered advanced for readers who are new to T-SQL; therefore, those sections are optional reading. If you already feel comfortable with the material discussed in the book up to that point, you might want to tackle the more advanced subjects; otherwise, feel free to skip those sections and return to them after you’ve gained more experience. The text will indicate when a section may be considered more advanced and is provided as optional reading.
Many aspects of SQL are unique to the language and are very different from other programming languages. This book helps you adopt the right state of mind and gain a true understanding of the language elements. You learn how to think in terms of sets and follow good SQL programming practices.
The book is not version specific; it does, however, cover language elements that were introduced in recent versions of SQL Server, including SQL Server 2012. When I discuss language elements that were introduced recently, I specify the version in which they were added.
Besides being available in an on-premises flavor, SQL Server is also available as a cloud-based service called Windows Azure SQL Database (formerly called SQL Azure). The code samples in this book were tested against both on-premises SQL Server and SQL Database. The book’s companion website (http://tsql.solidq.com) provides information about compatibility issues between the flavors—for example, features that are available in SQL Server 2012 but not yet in SQL Database.
To complement the learning experience, the book provides exercises that enable you to practice what you’ve learned. The book occasionally provides optional exercises that are more advanced. Those exercises are intended for readers who feel very comfortable with the material and want to challenge themselves with more difficult problems. The optional exercises for advanced readers are labeled as such.
Who Should Read This Book
This book is intended for T-SQL developers, DBAs, BI practitioners, report writers, analysts, architects, and SQL Server power users who just started working with SQL Server and need to write queries and develop code using Transact-SQL.
Assumptions: To get the most out of this book, you should have working experience with Windows and with applications based on Windows. You should also be familiar with basic concepts concerning relational database management systems.
Who Should Not Read This Book
Not every book is aimed at every possible audience. This book covers fundamentals. It is mainly aimed at T-SQL practitioners with little or no experience. With that said, several readers of the previous edition of this book have mentioned that—even though they already had years of experience—they still found the book useful for filling gaps in their knowledge.
Organization of This Book
This book starts with both a theoretical background to T-SQL querying and programming in Chapter 1, laying the foundations for the rest of the book, and also coverage of creating tables and defining data integrity. The book moves on to various aspects of querying and modifying data in Chapters 2 through 8, then to a discussion of concurrency and transactions in Chapter 9, and finally provides an overview of programmable objects in Chapter 10. The following section lists the chapter titles along with a short description:
Chapter 1, “Background to T-SQL Querying and Programming,” provides a theoretical background of SQL, set theory, and predicate logic; examines the relational model and more; describes SQL Server’s architecture; and explains how to create tables and define data integrity.
Chapter 2, “Single-Table Queries,” covers various aspects of querying a single table by using the SELECT statement.
Chapter 3, “Joins,” covers querying multiple tables by using joins, including cross joins, inner joins, and outer joins.
Chapter 4, “Subqueries,” covers queries within queries, otherwise known as subqueries.
Chapter 5, “Table Expressions,” covers derived tables, common table expressions (CTEs), views, inline table-valued functions, and the APPLY operator.
Chapter 6, “Set Operators,” covers the set operators UNION, INTERSECT, and EXCEPT.
Chapter 7, “Beyond the Fundamentals of Querying,” covers window functions, pivoting, unpivoting, and working with grouping sets.
Chapter 8, “Data Modification,” covers inserting, updating, deleting, and merging data.
Chapter 9, “Transactions and Concurrency,” covers concurrency of user connections that work with the same data simultaneously; it covers concepts including transactions, locks, blocking, isolation levels, and deadlocks.
Chapter 10, “Programmable Objects,” provides an overview of the T-SQL programming capabilities in SQL Server.
The book also provides an appendix, “Getting Started,” to help you set up your environment, download the book’s source code, install the TSQL2012 sample database, start writing code against SQL Server, and learn how to get help by working with SQL Server Books Online.
Download Source Code
Copyright notice: you’re only authorized to download the source code if you own a legal copy of the book.